Funnel amplifiers allow high side current measurements in systems where the load’s power supply operates at a higher voltage than the measurement circuitry.
How to accurately and safely amplify the low-level voltage generated by current sense resistors into a relatively large voltage that’s more easily measured.
Photodiodes and phototransistors are key to many applications, but they require special electrical, optical, and mechanical considerations.
Instrumentation amplifiers (INAs) accurately capture low-level differential signals from a sensor, but users need to choose and apply them carefully.
A brief discussion of transistors ranging from their history, what they are, how they work, how to choose an appropriate one, and application examples.